The Open Voting Consortium's (OVC) EVM2003 project was developed as an open source collaboration by programmers in several nations. However, some of its focus was to demonstrate features tailored to election systems and concerns specific to the United States. EVM2003 was a demonstration of the feasibility of what the EAC glossary currently refers to as an "Electronic Ballot Printer". The source code for EVM2003 can be found at

Design decisions and considerations in the development of EVM2003 were made primarily via mailing lists, and archives of this discussion are available at (all such posts are released to the public domain, and may be reproduced as wished)

An early post by Alan Dechert to that list: describes the initial design goals for EVM2003. On-screen ballot pre-rendering was not one of the original design goals, but its utility was realized during discussion, particularly in these posts by Fred McLain:;

Voter-verifiable printed ballots contain a simplified selection layout, and are mostly pre-rendered also, using a postscript ballot template. The option of using such a postscript ballot template was suggested by Jan Karrman at This option allows verification, with additional assistive technology, by blind, otherwise disabled, and non-English speaking, voters without compromise of their vote anonymity.

Architecturally, the EVM is coded using Python, with PyGame used for onscreen ballot rendering. The overall architecture of EVM2003 was published at Arthur M. Keller, Alan Dechert, Karl Auerbach, David Mertz, Amy Pearl, and Joseph Lorenzo Hall, "A PC-Based Open-Source Voting Machine with an Accessible Voter-Verifiable Paper Ballot," USENIX '05, FREENIX track, April 10-15, 2005, Anaheim, California. See for online copies of this and related papers.

EVM2003 was publicly demonstrated in an April 1, 2004 press conference. Among the articles written about the demo are by John Adams of O'Reilly; ; Television coverage included The GAO cited the demonstration at

The commercial company Open Voting Solutions was created by OVC supporters, after discussions with board members of OVC (see Among other design goals set by OVC, Open Voting Solutions uses ballot pre-rendering in their systems.